The operating system is at the center of the possibilities offered by today’s technology in terms of software. Not only computers, but also many different electronic devices have operating systems. The operating system, which enables all the basic features of the device to gain functionality, has different software and interface features such as Microsoft Windows, macOS X and Linux for computers.
One of the most functional of these operating system types is Linux. But before mentioning the working principles and history of Linux, it is necessary to express what the operating system does in general and why it is important to use it. For this reason, it may be useful to explain the promised features of Linux after defining the operating system and giving a detailed introduction to its functions .
An operating system can be expressed as a set of software that manages hardware resources and provides commonly used services for different applications. In the operating system, application code is largely executed directly by the hardware. In addition, the operating system acts as a bridge between the computer and applications that control hardware features such as input output and memory allocation.
Considering the hardware at the center of the communication network, the operating system becomes the part that mediates the command to be given from the user to the application, from the application to the hardware. As a matter of fact , it is accepted as a healthier software approach to evaluate any operating system not with the breadth of its functionality, but with the programming capacity of the command sent by the user for a specific purpose.
Operating systems are used not only in computers , game consoles, mobile phones and internet servers, but also in cars, white goods and wrist watches. In the 1940s, no electronic device had an operating system, but the creation of a binary number (0 and 1) machine language after the discovery of the programmable computer marked an important first step for operating system technologies.
There are several different types of operating systems that enable electronic devices to function. Operating systems such as real-time , single-user, multi-user , single-task, multi-tasking, distributed and embedded operating systems differ according to the way they are installed, the place where they are installed, the software features and interface types. Linux is one of these operating systems.
What is Linux?
Linux is one of the core software that is a fundamental part of computer operating systems. Linux, which is a derivative of the freely distributed, multitasking and multi-user UNIX environment, is mostly preferred by IT professionals today. Linux, which uses open source codes as well as having a free distribution, makes it possible to be reprogrammed and developed by users.
Linux, which is an operating system that does not cost any money, can be used easily on many different devices, especially IBM and PC compatible computers. The development of Linux is open to all internet users around the world, which makes it easy to detect and correct system errors. Thanks to this feature, the development system of Linux can be expressed as evolutionary.
Linux Past and Present?
Linux was developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds , a Finnish university student . This operating system, which was produced from scratch in UNIX’s software environment, does not have any code taken from there. In 1992, Linus Torvalds released this self-developed operating system as free software under the GNU Public License to get the support of more developers and users.
Thus, Linux and GNU completed each other’s deficiencies and became shareable with users as a complete operating system. Linus Torvalds’ preference for the GNU Public License is a critical point for Linux. Because Linux managed to get the contribution of many volunteer IT experts around the world , and this positively affected the development process of the operating system.
What are the Linux Features?
The biggest feature of the Linux operating system is that it is open source and completely free or can be purchased for a very low price. This is a huge advantage because the approach that makes Linux free also makes the programs to be used in the operating system free. In addition, Linux is a software that is highly resistant to system errors.
The fact that it does not crash easily is among the reasons why users prefer Linux. Even when you run several different programs at the same time, Linux keeps your computer running smoothly. Linux text editors, which are also very successful in preventing system errors, respond to many different needs such as drawing software, spreadsheets and databases .
In Which Projects Is The Linux Operating System Used?
The Linux operating system is specially prepared for many different projects. Linux, which is preferred by cognition experts when developing the software of high-performance programs, also increases productivity by making it possible to work on computers with multiple processors. Linux offers the best user experience in projects using graphical data analysis software or fractal creation software .
How to Install Linux?
To install Linux, you must first burn the Ubuntu Linux ISO file on a USB stick or DVD. After completing the burning process, you can start the Linux installation via USB or DVD. The important point here is that you should pay attention to the different types of Linux installations. If your computer has a Windows operating system, you can easily install Linux alongside it.
But when installing Linux, you also have the option to uninstall Windows and run Linux only. You can also wipe the disk, use ZFS and try a different setup. After making settings such as location, keyboard and internet connection, you can create your profile and complete the installation of Linux. Ubuntu allows you to create ISO files that make Linux easier to install.
Most Used Linux Commands
- Pwd command : This command allows you to find out which directory you are in. It reveals the exact location of the file you are looking for in the operating system. In this way, you do not waste time searching for any file. The location starts with the (/) sign, for example /home/username .
- Cd command : You can use the cd command to navigate the Linux file system. For example, when you want to go to the photos, which is a subdirectory of documents, from the directory named /home/username/Documents, it is sufficient to enter the cd photos command to perform the operation.
- Is command : This command, which is used to see the contents of a directory, is used with the directory’s location. When using this command for viewing content, all you have to do is enter the location of the folder you want to see. For example , Is/home/username/Documents can enable you to do this.
- Cat command : The cat command, which is one of the frequently used commands, is used to see the contents of a file in standard output (sdout). To use this command, you must first type cat and then enter the filename and extension. Example: cat file.txt
- Cp command : Used to copy a file from the current directory, the cp command creates a copy of any file you want. The command cp example.png/home/username/Pictures makes a copy of the sample.png file for you in the Pictures directory. The cp command is among the most functional commands.
- Mv command : This script is used to move and rename files. When using the mv command, which is very similar to the use of the cp command, you first type mv and then specify the filename and target directory. Example: mv file.txt /home/username/Documents
- Mkdir command : This command, which is used to create a new directory, is among the most useful commands. When you need a new directory to put your files, entering the mkdir Muzik command is sufficient to create the directory named Music.
- Rmdir command : Unlike mkdir, this command makes it easy to delete directories. The only difference is that the rmdir command only lets you delete empty directories. For example, if your Music directory is empty, you can easily delete this directory when you enter the rmdir Music command.
- Rm command : Unlike the rmdir command, it helps you delete directories containing files. If you want to delete a directory with the files in it, the rm command allows you to make the changes you planned on the operating system. Example: rm Music
- Touch command : The touch command, which allows you to create new empty files via the command line, is among the basic Linux commands. For example, if you want to create an HTML file named Web under the current Documents directory, simply enter the command touch /home/username/Documents/Web.html .